Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastrointestinal illness, commonly known as the stomach flu. It is responsible for the majority of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus infection affects people of all ages and can spread easily in settings such as schools, restaurants, cruise ships, and healthcare facilities.
One of the key characteristics of norovirus is its ability to cause sudden and severe vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms usually develop within 24 to 48 hours after exposure to the virus and can last for 1 to 3 days. In addition to vomiting and diarrhea, other common symptoms include nausea, stomach pain, headache, and low-grade fever.
While norovirus infection is generally not life-threatening, it can be particularly dangerous for certain populations, such as the elderly, young children, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The virus is easily transmitted from person to person through close contact, contaminated food or water, and contaminated surfaces. It can also spread through aerosolized particles when an infected person vomits.
Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for norovirus infection. The best approach is to manage the symptoms and prevent dehydration by drinking plenty of fluids. It is also important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly with soap and water, especially after using the toilet or changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food. Surfaces should be regularly cleaned and disinfected, and contaminated clothing and bedding should be handled with care to prevent further spread of the virus.
Preventing norovirus infection requires a combination of personal and environmental measures. It is important to stay home and avoid close contact with others if you are experiencing symptoms, as well as for at least 48 hours after the symptoms have subsided. Additionally, practicing proper food handling and preparation techniques can help prevent outbreaks in settings such as restaurants and cafeterias. By understanding the symptoms, treatment options, and prevention strategies, individuals can take proactive steps to protect themselves and others from norovirus infection.
What is Norovirus Infection?
Norovirus infection is a highly contagious viral illness that affects the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as stomach flu or viral gastroenteritis. Norovirus is a strain of virus that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
Transmission of Norovirus
Norovirus is transmitted through close contact with infected individuals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth or face. It can spread quickly in closed environments, such as schools, hospitals, cruise ships, and nursing homes.
Symptoms of Norovirus Infection
The symptoms of norovirus infection typically appear within 12 to 48 hours after exposure to the virus. Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fever, headache, and body aches. These symptoms can last for 1 to 3 days, and individuals are most contagious during the first few days of illness.
Severe dehydration can occur in vulnerable populations, such as young children, older adults, and those with weakened immune systems. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection, as it is a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own. To manage symptoms, it is advised to rest, stay hydrated, and consume bland foods. In severe cases of dehydration, intravenous fluids may be necessary.
Prevention of norovirus infection is crucial to limit its spread. This can be achieved by practicing good hand hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly with soap and water, especially after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food. Avoiding close contact with infected individuals and properly disinfecting contaminated surfaces also helps prevent the transmission of norovirus.
Overall, understanding norovirus infection and its modes of transmission can aid in implementing effective prevention strategies and minimizing the impact of outbreaks.
Common Symptoms of Norovirus Infection
Norovirus infection, also known as the stomach flu, is a highly contagious viral illness that affects the gastrointestinal system. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, which typically appear within 12 to 48 hours after exposure to the virus.
Some of the most common symptoms of norovirus infection include:
|Feeling of queasiness or an upset stomach
|Forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
|Loose or watery stools that occur frequently
|Discomfort or cramping in the abdominal area
|Sharp or dull pains in the stomach
|An elevated body temperature above the normal range
|Aching or pain in the head
|Muscle soreness or discomfort throughout the body
It is important to note that not everyone infected with norovirus will experience all of these symptoms, and the severity can vary from person to person. Some individuals may only have mild symptoms, while others may experience more severe illness.
If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms and suspect norovirus infection, it is recommended to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
How does Norovirus Spread?
Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that can easily spread from person to person. It is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis, often referred to as the stomach flu. Understanding how Norovirus spreads is crucial in preventing its transmission and reducing the risk of outbreaks.
Norovirus can spread through close contact with an infected person. This can occur through direct contact, such as shaking hands or hugging, or through indirect contact, such as touching surfaces or objects that have been contaminated with the virus. The virus can then be transmitted when a person touches their mouth, nose, or eyes after touching the contaminated surface or object.
Another common way Norovirus spreads is through the fecal-oral route. This can happen when a person ingests food or water that has been contaminated with the virus. Contamination can occur if an infected person does not wash their hands properly after using the toilet, then prepares food or touches surfaces that come into contact with food or water.
In some instances, Norovirus can become airborne and spread through small droplets of vomit or feces that become aerosolized. This can happen when an infected person vomits or flushes a toilet, releasing the virus into the air. Breathing in these droplets can lead to infection.
Preventing the spread of Norovirus:
To prevent the spread of Norovirus, it is important to practice good hygiene and follow proper food handling techniques. This includes:
- Washing hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after using the toilet, before preparing food, and before eating.
- Avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and staying home if you are sick.
- Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with Norovirus.
- Avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish.
- Using proper food handling techniques, such as washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly and cooking food to the appropriate temperature.
By taking these precautions, individuals can help reduce the spread of Norovirus and protect themselves and others from infection.
Preventing Norovirus Infection
Preventing the spread of norovirus is crucial to reducing the risk of infection. Follow these simple steps to help protect yourself and others:
1. Wash your hands frequently: Proper hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to prevent norovirus infection. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean running water for at least 20 seconds, especially before eating or preparing food, and after using the toilet or changing diapers. Use hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available.
2. Avoid close contact with infected individuals: Norovirus is highly contagious and can easily spread from person to person. Avoid close contact with someone who is infected, and if you are sick, stay home from work, school, or social activities until you have fully recovered.
3. Practice good food safety: Norovirus can contaminate food and beverages, leading to outbreaks of infection. Always wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating them, cook food thoroughly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked shellfish. Additionally, always practice good food handling and storage techniques to prevent cross-contamination.
4. Clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces: Norovirus can survive on surfaces for extended periods of time, making proper cleaning and disinfection essential. Clean and disinfect frequently-touched surfaces and objects, such as countertops, doorknobs, and toilets, using a bleach-based household cleaner or a solution of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water.
5. Educate yourself and others: Stay informed about norovirus and its symptoms, treatment, and prevention methods. Share this information with family, friends, and colleagues to promote awareness and help prevent the spread of norovirus in your community.
Remember, taking these preventive measures can greatly reduce the risk of norovirus infection and help keep yourself and others healthy.
Proper Handwashing Techniques
Proper handwashing techniques are essential for preventing the spread of norovirus infection. Washing your hands thoroughly with soap and water can help remove the virus from your hands and prevent it from spreading to others.
Follow these steps to ensure effective handwashing:
- Wet your hands with clean, running water.
- Apply soap to your hands and create a lather.
- Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds, making sure to cover all surfaces, including the back of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
- Rinse your hands thoroughly with clean, running water.
- Dry your hands with a clean towel or air dry them.
- If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Apply the sanitizer to the palm of one hand and rub your hands together until the sanitizer evaporates.
Remember to wash your hands:
- Before preparing or eating food
- After using the toilet or changing diapers
- After caring for someone who is sick
- After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
- After touching surfaces that may be contaminated
By practicing proper handwashing techniques, you can reduce the risk of norovirus infection and help keep yourself and others healthy.
Disinfecting and Cleaning Surfaces
Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that can survive on surfaces for long periods of time, making it important to properly clean and disinfect affected areas.
Here are some steps you can take to effectively disinfect and clean surfaces:
- Wear disposable gloves before starting the cleaning process to protect yourself from the virus.
- Remove any visible dirt or debris from the surface using disposable cloths or paper towels.
- Use a bleach-based cleaner or a disinfectant registered to kill norovirus. Follow the instructions on the product label to ensure proper use and dilution.
- Apply the cleaner directly to the surface and let it sit for the recommended contact time to effectively kill the virus.
- Wipe down the surface using disposable cloths or paper towels, starting from the cleanest area and working towards the dirtiest.
- Dispose of the gloves and cleaning materials properly after use to prevent cross-contamination.
- Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
It’s important to note that norovirus can spread easily from contaminated surfaces, so it’s essential to frequently clean and disinfect commonly touched objects and surfaces, such as doorknobs, faucets, and light switches.
Regular and proper disinfection and cleaning practices can help prevent the spread of norovirus and protect yourself and others from infection.
Foods and Beverages to Avoid
When infected with norovirus, it is important to make careful choices about what you eat and drink to avoid exacerbating symptoms and spreading the virus to others. Here are some foods and beverages that should be avoided during a norovirus infection:
|Raw or undercooked shellfish
|Unpasteurized fruit juices
|Raw or undercooked meats and poultry
|Raw fruits and vegetables
|Salads with raw vegetables
|Prewashed or precut fruits and vegetables
|Artificially sweetened beverages
|Unpasteurized cheese or dairy products
Avoiding these foods and beverages can help reduce the risk of further irritation to the digestive system and prevent complications from norovirus. It is advisable to focus on consuming bland, easily digestible foods and clear liquids such as broth, water, and electrolyte-replenishing drinks until symptoms subside. Consult a healthcare professional for personalized recommendations and guidance.
Proper Food Handling and Preparation
Preventing norovirus infection starts with proper food handling and preparation. Since norovirus is highly contagious and can survive on surfaces for long periods of time, it is crucial to take precautions when preparing and handling food.
Here are some guidelines for proper food handling and preparation to reduce the risk of norovirus infection:
- Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before and after handling food.
- Ensure that all kitchen surfaces, utensils, and cutting boards are clean and sanitized.
- Avoid preparing food if you are experiencing symptoms of norovirus infection, such as vomiting or diarrhea.
- Cook food thoroughly, especially meat, poultry, and seafood, to kill any potential norovirus present.
- Avoid cross-contamination by separating raw and cooked foods and using separate utensils and cutting boards.
- Refrigerate leftovers promptly and consume them within a few days to prevent the growth of norovirus.
- When serving food, ensure that it is kept at a safe temperature to prevent norovirus from multiplying.
- Regularly clean and disinfect kitchen surfaces, including countertops, sinks, and faucets.
- Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before consuming them.
- Use safe water sources for washing and preparing food to avoid norovirus contamination.
By following these guidelines, you can significantly reduce the risk of norovirus infection and protect yourself and others from becoming ill.
When to Seek Medical Attention
If you suspect you have been infected with norovirus and are experiencing severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. While most cases of norovirus infection resolve on their own within a few days, there are certain situations where medical intervention may be necessary.
Severe dehydration: Norovirus infection can cause excessive vomiting and diarrhea, leading to dehydration. If you are unable to keep fluids down or are experiencing symptoms such as dizziness, rapid heartbeat, or dry mouth, it is essential to seek medical care immediately.
Persistent symptoms: While norovirus symptoms typically last for 1-2 days, some individuals may experience prolonged symptoms. If you continue to experience severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or fever for more than a few days, it is advised to consult with a healthcare professional.
Certain individuals are more susceptible to severe norovirus infection and may require medical attention. This includes:
- Elderly individuals
- Young children
- Individuals with weakened immune systems
- People with underlying medical conditions
If you or a loved one falls into one of these high-risk categories and are displaying symptoms of norovirus infection, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate care and monitoring.
Remember, norovirus is highly contagious, so it is important to take precautions to prevent the spread of the virus and seek medical attention if needed.
Treatment Options for Norovirus Infection
Currently, there is no specific medication to treat norovirus infection. The best approach is to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Here are some treatment options:
- Fluid replacement: It is important to stay hydrated as vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration. Drinking clear liquids such as water, sports drinks, and broth can help replenish the lost fluids.
- Electrolyte solutions: In severe cases of dehydration, healthcare providers may recommend electrolyte solutions to restore the body’s electrolyte balance.
- Rest: Getting plenty of rest allows the body to recover and fight off the infection.
- Over-the-counter medications: Anti-diarrheal medications like loperamide can help reduce diarrhea, but these should only be used under a healthcare provider’s guidance.
- Probiotics: Some studies suggest that probiotics can aid in reducing the duration and severity of norovirus infection.
- Avoidance of certain foods: It’s important to avoid foods that are difficult to digest or may irritate the stomach, such as spicy or fatty foods, until the symptoms subside.
- Isolation: To prevent the spread of infection, it is essential to isolate oneself until at least 48 hours after the symptoms have resolved.
It is crucial to consult a healthcare provider if the symptoms worsen or if there are signs of severe dehydration, such as dizziness, rapid heartbeat, or decreased urination. They can provide further guidance and support in managing the norovirus infection.
Managing Symptoms at Home
If you have been diagnosed with a norovirus infection, it is important to take steps to manage your symptoms while you recover. Here are some tips to help you feel better:
One of the most important things you can do when dealing with a norovirus infection is to stay hydrated. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause dehydration, so it is important to drink plenty of fluids. Water is a good choice, but you can also try clear liquids like broth or a sports drink that can help replace electrolytes.
Rest and Take It Easy
Resting is crucial when you have a norovirus infection. Your body needs time to recover, so make sure to take it easy and avoid strenuous activities. Give yourself permission to rest and relax until you start feeling better.
Monitor Your Symptoms
Keep an eye on your symptoms and seek medical attention if they worsen or do not improve after a few days. While most cases of norovirus infection resolve on their own, it is important to know when to ask for help.
Follow a Bland Diet
When your stomach is upset, it can be helpful to stick to a bland diet. Foods like toast, crackers, rice, and boiled potatoes are usually easy to digest and can help soothe your stomach. Avoiding spicy, greasy, or fatty foods is a good idea until you feel better.
By following these tips, you can manage your norovirus symptoms from the comfort of your own home and hopefully recover more quickly. Remember to take care of yourself and seek medical attention if needed.
Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks in Institutions
Infections caused by norovirus can spread rapidly in institutions such as schools, daycares, nursing homes, and hospitals. Preventing outbreaks requires a combination of proper hygiene practices and vigilant monitoring.
Here are some important steps that institutions can take to prevent norovirus outbreaks:
- Maintain a clean environment: Regularly clean and disinfect common areas, restrooms, and frequently touched surfaces with an EPA-approved disinfectant. Pay special attention to areas where contaminated individuals may have been.
- Promote hand hygiene: Encourage frequent handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after using the restroom and before eating. Provide hand sanitizers in easily accessible areas and promote their use.
- Ensure proper food handling: Train staff on safe food handling practices and follow guidelines for storing, preparing, and serving food. Implement strict hygiene protocols to prevent cross-contamination.
- Isolate sick individuals: If someone in an institution shows symptoms of norovirus infection, such as vomiting and diarrhea, isolate them from others to prevent the spread. Provide them with necessary care and fluids.
- Educate staff and visitors: Raise awareness about norovirus, its symptoms, and preventive measures among staff, students, patients, visitors, and others. Distribute informational materials and conduct training sessions as needed.
- Implement outbreak response plan: Develop a plan outlining the steps to be taken in case of a norovirus outbreak. This should include communication strategies, cleaning protocols, and measures to minimize the impact on affected individuals.
By following these preventive measures, institutions can minimize the risk of norovirus outbreaks and protect the health and well-being of their residents, students, or patients.
Norovirus Infection in Children
Norovirus infection is a common illness that affects children of all ages. It is highly contagious and can spread easily among children in daycare centers, schools, and other close-knit environments.
The symptoms of norovirus infection in children are similar to those in adults, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. However, children may also experience a low-grade fever and general malaise.
Children are particularly vulnerable to norovirus infection due to their immature immune systems and tendency to put their hands in their mouths. They can easily contract the virus by touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching their faces.
Preventing norovirus infection in children requires strict hygiene practices. Parents and caregivers should ensure that children wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
In addition, children with norovirus infection should be kept home from school or daycare until they have fully recovered and are no longer contagious. This helps to prevent the spread of the virus to other children and staff members.
If a child does become infected with norovirus, there is no specific treatment available. It is important to keep the child hydrated by offering plenty of fluids and electrolyte solutions. Rest and a bland diet can also help to alleviate symptoms.
Overall, norovirus infection in children can be challenging to manage, but with proper prevention and supportive care, most cases resolve on their own within a few days.
Benefits of vaccination
Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent norovirus infection. By receiving the norovirus vaccine, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of contracting the virus and experiencing its unpleasant symptoms.
One of the main benefits of vaccination is that it helps to build immunity against norovirus. When a person receives the vaccine, it stimulates their immune system to create specific antibodies that can recognize and attack norovirus. This helps the body to mount a faster and more efficient response if it is exposed to the virus in the future.
Vaccination also plays a crucial role in preventing the spread of norovirus. By reducing the number of people who are susceptible to the virus, vaccination helps to create community immunity, also known as herd immunity. This means that even individuals who are not vaccinated are at a lower risk of contracting norovirus because the virus has fewer opportunities to spread within the population.
In addition to protecting individuals from the symptoms of norovirus infection, vaccination can also have broader societal benefits. By reducing the number of people who develop severe cases of norovirus, vaccination can help to alleviate the strain on healthcare systems and reduce the economic burden associated with treating and managing the illness.
In conclusion, vaccination against norovirus offers several significant benefits. It helps to build immunity, prevent the spread of the virus, and reduce the severity of the illness. Getting vaccinated is a proactive step individuals can take to protect themselves and others from the impacts of norovirus infection.
When Can You Return to Work or School?
If you have been diagnosed with norovirus, it is important to take steps to prevent the further spread of the infection. This includes staying home from work or school until you are no longer contagious to others.
The contagious period for norovirus usually begins when symptoms first appear and can continue for up to 48 hours after you no longer have symptoms. During this time, the virus can still be present in your vomit and stool, and can easily spread to others through close contact or through contaminated surfaces and food.
It is important to note that some people may continue to shed the virus even after they have recovered and are no longer experiencing symptoms. This means that you should take extra precautions even after you start feeling better.
Returning to Work or School
Before returning to work or school, it is important to make sure that you are no longer contagious. This can typically be determined by following the guidelines set by your local health department or healthcare provider.
|Recommended Time to Stay Home
|At least 48 hours after the last episode
|At least 48 hours after the last episode
|At least 24 hours after the fever has subsided
|Until you feel well enough to resume normal activities
It is important to remember that these guidelines are general and may vary depending on your specific circumstances or the policies of your workplace or school. Always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.
Returning to work or school too soon can put others at risk of contracting norovirus, so it is important to err on the side of caution and prioritize the health and well-being of those around you.
Long-Term Effects of Norovirus Infection
Norovirus infection, commonly known as the stomach flu, is a highly contagious illness that can cause severe symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. While most people recover from norovirus within a few days, there can be long-term effects associated with the infection.
1. Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
One of the potential long-term effects of norovirus infection is the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is a chronic condition that affects the large intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements. Studies have shown that norovirus infection can trigger the development of IBS in some individuals.
2. Nutritional Deficiencies
Severe diarrhea and vomiting caused by norovirus infection can lead to dehydration and loss of essential nutrients. If not properly managed, this can result in long-term nutritional deficiencies. It is important for individuals who have had a norovirus infection to replenish their fluids and nutrients to prevent these deficiencies.
|Signs of Nutritional Deficiencies
|Weakness and fatigue
|Decreased immune function
|Dry skin and brittle hair
|Poor wound healing
|Delayed growth and development in children
|Impaired cognitive function
While the long-term effects of norovirus infection can be concerning, it is important to remember that most people recover fully without any complications. However, if you are experiencing persistent symptoms or have concerns about your health after a norovirus infection, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance.
Latest Research and Developments
Scientists and researchers around the world are constantly studying norovirus infection to better understand its symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Here are some of the latest research and developments:
1. Identification of new strains
Researchers have identified new strains of norovirus that have emerged in recent years. These new strains may have different characteristics and could pose additional challenges for healthcare professionals in controlling and preventing outbreaks.
2. Vaccine development
Efforts are underway to develop a vaccine for norovirus. Vaccination could provide long-lasting immunity and protect individuals from the infection. Initial studies have shown promising results, and researchers are now conducting clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of potential vaccines.
3. Improved diagnostics
Developing more accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for norovirus infection is a priority for researchers. This would enable faster detection and diagnosis of the infection, allowing healthcare providers to promptly implement appropriate measures to prevent its spread.
Currently, laboratory testing is required to confirm norovirus infection. Researchers are exploring the use of innovative techniques such as molecular assays and point-of-care devices to improve diagnostic capabilities.
4. Environmental control measures
Research is ongoing to better understand how norovirus survives and spreads in the environment. This knowledge could lead to improved control measures and strategies for preventing transmission in high-risk settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, and cruise ships.
Studies are examining the effectiveness of disinfection methods, the role of contaminated surfaces in transmission, and the impact of environmental factors on virus survival. These findings could inform guidelines and recommendations for preventing norovirus outbreaks.
Overall, ongoing research and developments in the field of norovirus infection are crucial for improving our understanding of this common and highly contagious illness. The findings from these studies will contribute to the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies, ultimately reducing the burden of norovirus on public health.
Question and answer:
What is norovirus?
Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, which is inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is a leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks and is often referred to as the “stomach bug” or the “winter vomiting bug.”
What are the symptoms of norovirus infection?
The symptoms of norovirus infection include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes fever. The illness usually starts suddenly and lasts for 1 to 3 days. It can be quite unpleasant, but most people recover without any complications.
How is norovirus spread?
Norovirus is easily spread from person to person, through contaminated food or water, and by touching contaminated surfaces. It can survive on surfaces for weeks and is resistant to many common disinfectants. Outbreaks commonly occur in places with close quarters, such as cruise ships, nursing homes, and schools.
Is there a treatment for norovirus infection?
There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection. The best thing to do is to stay hydrated by drinking fluids and get plenty of rest. Over-the-counter medications can help alleviate symptoms like nausea and diarrhea. It is important to practice good hygiene to prevent spreading the virus to others.
How can norovirus infection be prevented?
Norovirus infection can be prevented by washing hands frequently with soap and water, especially after using the bathroom and before handling food. It is also important to properly clean and disinfect surfaces that may be contaminated with the virus. Avoiding close contact with infected individuals and practicing good food safety measures can also help prevent the spread of norovirus.
What is norovirus?
Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis in humans. It is often referred to as the “stomach flu” or “winter vomiting bug”.
What are the symptoms of norovirus infection?
The symptoms of norovirus infection include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, and sometimes fever and body aches.
How is norovirus transmitted?
Norovirus is transmitted through close contact with infected individuals, consuming contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then putting your hands in your mouth.
What is the treatment for norovirus infection?
There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection. The best course of action is to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids and to rest until the symptoms subside.