UTIs or urinary tract infections are common conditions that affect many individuals, especially women. However, it is important to understand that not all UTIs are the same. While most UTIs involve the lower urinary tract, such as the bladder and urethra, kidney infections are a more serious type of infection that affect the kidneys themselves.
UTIs typically occur when bacteria enter the urethra and make their way up to the bladder. This can result in symptoms such as frequent urination, a burning sensation during urination, and cloudy or dark urine. If the infection spreads to the kidneys, it can lead to more severe symptoms such as fever, back pain, and chills.
It is essential to recognize the difference between a regular UTI and a kidney infection because kidney infections can be more dangerous if left untreated. Kidney infections can cause long-term damage to the kidneys and can even result in sepsis, a life-threatening condition. Therefore, seeking prompt medical attention is crucial if you suspect a kidney infection.
In conclusion, while both UTIs and kidney infections involve the urinary tract and share some symptoms, they are distinct conditions. Understanding the difference between the two can help individuals recognize the severity of their symptoms and seek appropriate medical treatment.
Key Differences: Kidney Infections vs. UTIs
Kidney infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often confused as being the same thing, but there are key differences between the two. While they both involve infections in the urinary system, they affect different parts of the body and have different symptoms and treatment approaches.
|Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, occur when bacteria or other harmful microorganisms enter the kidneys.
|UTIs, on the other hand, refer to infections that occur anywhere in the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and ureters.
|Symptoms of kidney infections often include fever, back or abdominal pain, frequent urination, vomiting, and cloudy or bloody urine.
|UTI symptoms can vary depending on the specific location of the infection, but common symptoms include urinary urgency, burning sensation during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
|Kidney infections typically require more intensive treatment than UTIs. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to kill the bacteria causing the infection, and hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases.
|UTIs can often be treated with a short course of antibiotics, and hospitalization is rarely required.
It’s important to differentiate between kidney infections and UTIs because the treatment approaches and potential complications can differ. If you are experiencing symptoms of a urinary tract infection, it is recommended to see a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Symptoms and Signs of a Kidney Infection
A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis, is a more severe form of a urinary tract infection (UTI). While some symptoms of a kidney infection may be similar to those of a UTI, there are also additional signs to look out for:
|Pain or burning sensation during urination
|Cloudy or bloody urine
|Back or abdominal pain
|Urge to urinate even when the bladder is empty
|Flank pain (pain in the side or back)
|Weakness or fatigue
|Increased urge to urinate
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, especially if they are more severe or if you have a history of UTIs, it is important to seek medical attention. Kidney infections can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so it is crucial to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms and Signs of a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection that affects the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. While the symptoms of a UTI can vary depending on the severity and location of the infection, there are some common signs to look for.
|Feeling the need to urinate more often than usual, even if only small amounts of urine are passed
|Burning sensation during urination
|Experiencing a painful or burning sensation while urinating
|Strong, persistent urge to urinate
|Feeling an intense and constant need to urinate, even if little to no urine is produced
|Cloudy or bloody urine
|Noticing that the urine appears cloudy or has a pinkish or reddish color
|Having urine that has a strong, unpleasant odor
|Lower abdominal pain or discomfort
|Experiencing pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen
|Fever and chills
|Developing a fever and experiencing chills, which may indicate a more severe infection that has spread to the kidneys
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention, as a UTI can lead to more serious complications if left untreated. Your healthcare provider can diagnose a UTI through a urine sample and prescribe appropriate treatment, such as antibiotics, to help clear the infection.
Causes of Kidney Infections
Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, are caused by bacteria entering the kidneys. The most common bacteria that cause kidney infections are Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally resides in the gastrointestinal tract but can migrate to the urinary tract.
There are several ways in which bacteria can reach the kidneys and cause an infection. The most common cause is a urinary tract infection (UTI) that spreads to the kidneys. UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urethra and travel up into the bladder and potentially to the kidneys.
Factors that Increase the Risk of Kidney Infections
There are certain factors that can increase the risk of developing a kidney infection. These include:
|Women are more prone to kidney infections than men, mostly due to the shorter length of the urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder and kidneys.
|Pregnant women have an increased risk of kidney infections due to hormonal changes that affect the urinary tract and decrease bladder tone.
|Urinary tract abnormalities
|Structural abnormalities in the urinary tract, such as kidney stones or vesicoureteral reflux, can disrupt the flow of urine and increase the risk of infection.
|Weak immune system
|Individuals with a weakened immune system, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, are more susceptible to kidney infections.
In some cases, kidney infections can also develop as a result of a bloodstream infection. Bacteria from another infection site, such as a urinary tract infection or a skin infection, can enter the bloodstream and travel to the kidneys.
Additionally, certain medical procedures, such as kidney surgery or the placement of a urinary catheter, can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract and potentially lead to a kidney infection.
It’s important to note that kidney infections are not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person.
Causes of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
UTIs, or Urinary Tract Infections, are common infections that can affect different parts of the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and kidneys. While UTIs can occur in anyone, they are more common in women.
The causes of UTIs are often related to bacteria that enter the urinary tract. The most common culprit is a type of bacteria called Escherichia coli (E. coli), which usually resides in the digestive system but can cause infection when it enters the urinary tract through the urethra. Sexual activity, improper hygiene, and certain medical conditions can increase the risk of UTIs.
It is important to note that while UTIs primarily affect the lower urinary tract (bladder and urethra), they can sometimes spread to the kidneys, leading to a kidney infection. This is more likely to happen if the initial UTI is not treated or if there are other underlying factors that affect the urinary system’s ability to flush out bacteria.
In summary, the causes of UTIs are typically related to the introduction of bacteria, such as E. coli, into the urinary tract. Understanding the risk factors and practicing good urinary hygiene can help prevent UTIs and potential complications, like kidney infections.
Risk Factors for Developing a Kidney Infection
While urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney infections are related, they are not the same. Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, occur when bacteria from a UTI migrate and infect the kidneys. Understanding the risk factors for developing a kidney infection can help in preventing and treating this condition.
Having a history of frequent UTIs increases the risk of developing a kidney infection. UTIs that are left untreated or inadequately treated can progress to a kidney infection.
2. Urinary Tract Abnormalities
Individuals with structural abnormalities or obstructions in their urinary tract, such as kidney stones or an enlarged prostate, are at a higher risk of developing a kidney infection. These abnormalities can hinder the normal flow of urine, allowing bacteria to multiply and cause an infection in the kidneys.
It is worth noting that women are generally more prone to UTIs and kidney infections due to their anatomy. The shorter urethra in women makes it easier for bacteria to travel from the urinary tract to the kidneys.
3. Weakened Immune System
A weakened immune system can make it harder for the body to fight off infections, including kidney infections. Conditions such as diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy increase the risk of developing a kidney infection.
4. Catheter Use
People who require long-term use of catheters for urinary retention or other medical reasons have an increased risk of developing a kidney infection. The presence of a catheter makes it easier for bacteria to enter the urinary tract and reach the kidneys.
In conclusion, while a UTI and kidney infection may have some similarities, they are different conditions. Recognizing the risk factors for developing a kidney infection can help individuals take preventive measures and seek prompt medical attention when necessary.
Risk Factors for Developing a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract, causing an infection. While UTIs can affect anyone, certain factors can increase the risk of developing a UTI.
Women are more prone to developing UTIs compared to men. This is because the urethra in women is shorter and closer to the anus, making it easier for bacteria to enter the urinary tract.
2. Sexual Activity
Sexual activity can increase the risk of developing a UTI. During sexual intercourse, bacteria can be pushed into the urethra, increasing the likelihood of infection.
It’s important for individuals to urinate before and after sexual activity to help flush out any bacteria that may have entered the urinary tract.
Other risk factors for developing a UTI include:
- Poor hygiene
- Having a weakened immune system
- Using certain types of birth control
- Having a urinary catheter
- Having urinary tract abnormalities
- Having diabetes
While kidney infections and UTIs share similar risk factors, it’s important to note that they are not the same. UTIs are generally confined to the lower urinary tract, while kidney infections involve the kidneys and can be more severe.
If you suspect you have a UTI, it’s important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Diagnosis of Kidney Infections
The diagnosis of kidney infections can be challenging because the symptoms often overlap with those of urinary tract infections (UTIs). While UTIs and kidney infections share some similarities, it is crucial to differentiate between the two in order to provide the appropriate treatment.
Medical History and Physical Examination
The first step in diagnosing a kidney infection involves taking a detailed medical history and conducting a physical examination. The healthcare provider will inquire about the patient’s symptoms, such as urinary frequency, urgency, pain during urination, and lower abdominal or back pain. A physical examination may include checking for tenderness in the kidney area or any other signs of infection.
Urinalysis and Urine Culture
A urinalysis is typically performed to detect the presence of bacteria, white blood cells, and red blood cells in the urine. The presence of bacteria and white blood cells can indicate a urinary tract infection. However, if the infection has spread to the kidneys, the lab results may show a higher concentration of bacteria and white blood cells than what is usually found in a UTI.
In some cases, a urine culture may be performed to identify the specific bacteria causing the infection. This helps determine the most effective antibiotic treatment.
Additionally, imaging tests such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be ordered to visualize the kidneys and identify any abnormalities or obstructions that could be causing the infection.
Overall, an accurate diagnosis of kidney infections involves considering the patient’s symptoms, conducting urine tests, and potentially using imaging techniques. It is crucial to differentiate kidney infections from UTIs to ensure appropriate treatment and prevent complications. Patients experiencing symptoms should seek medical attention to receive a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.
Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) involves evaluating the symptoms and conducting tests to identify the presence of infection-causing bacteria in the urinary tract. While the symptoms of UTIs and kidney infections may be similar, it is important to distinguish between the two, as kidney infections can have more severe consequences.
When diagnosing a UTI, doctors typically consider the patient’s medical history and assess the symptoms, such as frequent urination, a strong urge to urinate, cloudy or bloody urine, and a burning sensation during urination. If these symptoms are present, a urine sample is collected and sent to a laboratory for analysis.
The laboratory will perform a urinalysis, which involves examining the urine sample for the presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, and bacteria. The presence of bacteria in the urine, along with the symptoms, is a strong indication of a UTI. Additionally, the urine sample can be cultured to identify the specific bacteria causing the infection, which helps determine the most effective treatment.
In some cases, imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan may be ordered to evaluate the urinary tract and rule out any underlying abnormalities or complications. These tests can provide a more detailed view of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, helping doctors identify any issues that may be contributing to the UTI.
It is important to note that a diagnosis of a UTI should be made by a healthcare professional, as self-diagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment and potentially worsening of the infection. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of UTIs is crucial to prevent complications and ensure a full recovery.
Treatment Options for Kidney Infections
Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, are a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that occur when bacteria enter the kidneys. If left untreated, kidney infections can cause serious complications and may even lead to kidney damage. Therefore, prompt treatment is crucial for managing kidney infections.
The primary treatment for kidney infections is a course of antibiotics. These medications are prescribed to kill the bacteria causing the infection and prevent it from spreading further. The choice of antibiotic will depend on the severity of the infection and the specific bacteria involved. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
In addition to antibiotics, it is important to stay well-hydrated and to get plenty of rest to allow the body to heal. Drinking plenty of water helps to flush out the bacteria from the urinary system. Pain relievers may also be recommended to manage any discomfort or pain associated with kidney infections.
In cases of severe kidney infections or if symptoms do not improve with oral antibiotics, hospitalization may be required. Intravenous antibiotics are administered in a hospital setting to ensure more effective delivery of the medications. This allows for higher concentrations of antibiotics to reach the kidneys and helps to speed up recovery.
It is important to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed by the healthcare provider, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. This helps to ensure that all the bacteria are killed and reduces the risk of recurrent infections.
If kidney infections are recurrent or if there are underlying conditions contributing to the infections, further medical investigations may be necessary. These may include imaging tests, such as ultrasounds or CT scans, to identify any abnormalities in the urinary system. In some cases, surgery may be required to correct structural problems that make the kidneys more susceptible to infections.
Treatment options for kidney infections are effective and can help to resolve the infection and prevent complications. However, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms of a kidney infection are present, as delaying treatment can lead to more serious problems.
Treatment Options for Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be uncomfortable and bothersome, but fortunately, they are usually easy to treat.
For most cases of uncomplicated UTIs, antibiotics are the first line of treatment. These medications are prescribed by a healthcare professional and are effective in killing the bacteria causing the infection. Commonly prescribed antibiotics for UTIs include:
- Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)
- Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
- Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid)
- Cephalexin (Keflex)
It is important to take the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria. Failure to do so may lead to an incomplete treatment and recurrent UTIs.
In addition to antibiotics, it is also crucial to stay well-hydrated and drink plenty of fluids to help flush out the bacteria from the urinary tract. Avoiding irritants like caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods may also help alleviate symptoms and promote healing.
If symptoms are severe or persistent, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment. In some cases, particularly those involving complications or recurring UTIs, additional tests or treatment options may be necessary.
It is worth noting that the treatment options for kidney infections are similar to those for UTIs. However, since kidney infections are generally more serious and can potentially lead to complications, hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics may be required. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms suggest a kidney infection.
In conclusion, prompt and appropriate treatment of UTIs is essential to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Antibiotics, adequate hydration, and lifestyle modifications are key components of the treatment plan. If symptoms worsen or persist, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and management.
Prevention Tips for Kidney Infections
Kidney infections can be a serious condition that can cause discomfort and lead to complications if not properly treated. While they are different from UTIs (urinary tract infections), they both involve the same organs, so prevention methods for UTIs can also help in preventing kidney infections. Here are some tips to reduce the risk of developing a kidney infection:
1. Stay Hydrated
Drinking an adequate amount of water daily helps to flush out bacteria from the urinary tract, reducing the chances of infection. Aim to drink at least 8 glasses of water (about 2 liters) per day.
2. Practice Good Hygiene
Proper hygiene plays a crucial role in preventing kidney infections. It is essential to keep the genital area clean and dry, wiping from front to back after using the bathroom to avoid the spread of bacteria from the rectum to the urethra.
3. Empty the bladder regularly
Make sure to empty the bladder regularly, especially after sexual intercourse, to prevent the pooling of bacteria in the urinary tract. This can help flush out any potential bacteria before an infection develops.
4. Urinate before and after sexual intercourse
Urinating before and after sexual intercourse helps to flush out bacteria that may have entered the urethra during intercourse. This simple step can significantly reduce the risk of developing a kidney infection.
5. Wear breathable underwear
Avoid tight and synthetic underwear that can trap moisture and create a favorable environment for bacteria growth. Opt for breathable cotton underwear to keep the genital area dry and less prone to infections.
By following these prevention tips, you can decrease the likelihood of developing a kidney infection. However, if you experience any symptoms like pain in the lower back, frequent urination, or fever, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Prevention Tips for Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common type of infection that can affect various parts of the urinary system, including the kidneys. It is important to take preventive measures to reduce the risk of developing a UTI. Here are some tips to help prevent urinary tract infections:
1. Stay hydrated: Drinking plenty of water helps dilute urine and flush out bacteria from the urinary tract, reducing the risk of infection.
2. Practice good hygiene: Always wipe from front to back after using the toilet to prevent bacteria from the anal area from spreading to the urethra.
3. Urinate regularly: Emptying the bladder frequently can help flush out bacteria that may have entered the urinary tract.
4. Avoid holding urine: Holding urine for long periods of time can increase the risk of bacterial growth in the urinary tract.
5. Wear breathable underwear: Choose cotton underwear and avoid tight-fitting pants to promote good airflow and prevent moisture buildup, which can create a breeding ground for bacteria.
6. Urinate before and after sexual activity: This helps to flush out any bacteria that may have entered the urethra during sexual intercourse.
7. Avoid using irritants: Harsh soaps, douches, and feminine hygiene products can irritate the urinary tract and increase the risk of infection. Stick to mild, fragrance-free products instead.
8. Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help boost your immune system and keep the urinary system healthy.
9. Avoid bladder irritants: Limit your intake of caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as these can irritate the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
10. Stay physically active: Regular exercise can help improve circulation and boost your immune system, reducing the risk of infection.
By following these prevention tips, you can help reduce the likelihood of experiencing a urinary tract infection. If you suspect you may have a UTI or kidney infection, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Potential Complications of Kidney Infections
While kidney infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are not the same, a kidney infection can develop as a complication of an untreated UTI. Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, occur when bacteria from a UTI spread from the bladder to the kidneys.
If left untreated, kidney infections can lead to several potential complications. These can include:
|Untreated kidney infections can cause permanent damage to the kidneys. This can impair their function and can even lead to kidney failure.
|A severe kidney infection can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition. Sepsis occurs when the infection spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream, causing inflammation and organ dysfunction.
|Chronic kidney disease
|Repeated or untreated kidney infections can increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time.
|In some cases, kidney infections can lead to the formation of abscesses, which are pus-filled pockets. These abscesses can be painful and may require drainage or surgical intervention.
|Having a previous kidney infection increases the risk of experiencing recurrent UTIs and kidney infections in the future.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a UTI to prevent the development of a kidney infection and potential complications. Prompt treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the spread of bacteria to the kidneys and minimize the risk of complications.
Potential Complications of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
While both urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney infections can cause discomfort and symptoms like pain during urination, the consequences of each condition can vary.
UTIs, also known as bladder infections, occur when bacteria enter the urethra and travel up to the bladder. If left untreated, UTIs can lead to several potential complications:
- Recurrent UTIs: Some individuals may experience multiple UTIs within a year, leading to chronic urinary tract infections that require ongoing treatment.
- Kidney infection (pyelonephritis): If the bacteria that cause a UTI travel up from the bladder to the kidneys, it can result in a kidney infection. This is a more serious condition that may require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics to treat.
- Septicemia: In rare cases, a severe kidney infection can lead to septicemia, a life-threatening condition where the infection spreads to the bloodstream. This can cause symptoms like high fever, rapid heartbeat, and confusion, and requires immediate medical attention.
- Scarring of the urinary tract: Repeated UTIs can cause scarring of the urethra, bladder, and kidneys, which can lead to long-term complications and reduced kidney function.
- Kidney damage: Untreated kidney infections can result in permanent kidney damage, potentially leading to kidney failure.
If you experience symptoms of a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent these potential complications.
When to Seek Medical Help for Kidney Infections
If you suspect that you have a kidney infection, it is important to seek medical help as soon as possible. While kidney infections share similar symptoms with UTIs, they are not the same and can be more serious.
Signs and Symptoms
Common signs and symptoms of a kidney infection include:
- Severe back or side pain
- Fever and chills
- Frequent urination
- Painful urination
- Cloudy or bloody urine
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is crucial to see a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment.
Risks and Complications
If left untreated, kidney infections can lead to more severe complications, such as:
- Kidney damage or scarring
- Septicemia (blood poisoning)
- Permanent kidney failure
- Spread of infection to other parts of the body
It is important to remember that not all kidney infections are the same, and complications can vary depending on the individual. Seeking medical help promptly can help prevent or minimize these risks.
In conclusion, if you suspect you have a kidney infection and are experiencing symptoms beyond those associated with a UTI, it is important to seek medical help. Kidney infections can have serious consequences if left untreated, so it is essential to receive proper care and treatment from a healthcare professional.
When to Seek Medical Help for Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
If you suspect that you have a urinary tract infection (UTI), it is important to seek medical help. UTIs are common infections that can affect different parts of the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and kidneys. While UTIs can often be treated with over-the-counter medications and home remedies, there are certain situations where it is vital to see a healthcare provider.
One of the key factors to consider is the severity of your symptoms. Symptoms of a UTI can include frequent urination, a strong urge to urinate, pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis, cloudy or bloody urine, and a strong odor to the urine. If you experience severe pain, high fever, or vomiting, it may indicate that the infection has spread to your kidneys. Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, are a more serious condition than a simple UTI and require prompt medical attention to prevent complications.
Another important consideration is whether you have a history of recurrent UTIs. If you have had multiple UTIs in the past, especially within a short period of time, it may be a sign of an underlying issue that needs to be addressed. Your healthcare provider can help determine the cause of your recurring infections and develop a treatment plan to prevent future episodes.
If left untreated, UTIs can lead to more serious complications, such as kidney damage and recurrent infections. Additionally, certain populations, such as pregnant women and individuals with diabetes or weakened immune systems, are at a higher risk for developing complications from UTIs and should seek medical help promptly.
- If you experience symptoms of a urinary tract infection
- If your symptoms are severe or accompanied by high fever or vomiting
- If you have a history of recurrent UTIs
Remember, it is always better to seek medical help and get the appropriate treatment for a UTI to prevent any complications from arising. Your healthcare provider can accurately diagnose your condition and prescribe the necessary medications to help you recover quickly and prevent future infections.
Question and answer:
What is the difference between a kidney infection and a urinary tract infection?
A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis, occurs when bacteria or viruses infect the kidneys. A urinary tract infection, on the other hand, refers to an infection in any part of the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and kidneys.
Can a urinary tract infection lead to a kidney infection?
Yes, a urinary tract infection can potentially lead to a kidney infection if left untreated or if the bacteria travel up from the bladder to the kidneys.
What are the risk factors for developing a kidney infection?
Factors that can increase the risk of developing a kidney infection include being female, having a weakened immune system, having a urinary tract blockage, or having a history of urinary tract infections.
How are kidney infections treated?
Kidney infections are typically treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection.
How can kidney infections be prevented?
To reduce the risk of developing a kidney infection, it is important to maintain good hygiene, drink plenty of water, and urinate frequently to flush out bacteria.