The Prevalence and Prevention of Infections – A Comprehensive Analysis of the Causes, Impact, and Strategies for Effective Management

Infections are often caused by bacteria, pathogens, or other types of microbes that invade the body. These microscopic organisms, commonly known as germs, can lead to the development of a disease or illness. Infections can range from minor to severe, and sometimes even result in a widespread outbreak.

One of the most common types of infections are caused by viruses. These tiny particles enter the body and take over healthy cells, causing them to reproduce and spread throughout the body. Viral infections can cause a range of symptoms, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches. Treatment for viral infections typically focuses on relieving symptoms and allowing the body’s immune system to fight off the infection.

Other types of infections, such as those caused by bacteria, require a different approach to treatment. Bacterial infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, respiratory system, and urinary tract. Common symptoms of bacterial infections include inflammation, redness, pain, and sometimes the presence of pus. Treatment for bacterial infections often involves the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria and prevent further spread of the infection.

Causes of Infections

An infection is typically caused by the presence and replication of pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, in the body. These microorganisms, often referred to as germs, can enter the body through various means and lead to illness and disease.

Pathogens can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact, such as touching, kissing, or sexual activity. They can also be transmitted through indirect contact, when an infected person coughs or sneezes and releases respiratory droplets into the air, which others may inhale.

Infections can also occur through exposure to contaminated objects or surfaces. For example, touching a doorknob or computer keyboard that has been contaminated with germs can introduce them into the body when someone touches their face or mouth.

Bacteria, one of the most common types of pathogens, can cause a wide range of infections, including skin infections, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections. They can enter the body through cuts, wounds, or by ingesting contaminated food or water.

Viruses are another common cause of infections. They are smaller than bacteria and require a host cell to replicate. Viral infections can cause illnesses such as the common cold, flu, and COVID-19. They can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or by touching contaminated surfaces.

Fungi, such as molds and yeasts, can also cause infections. These types of infections are most commonly found on the skin or in the lungs and can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised.

In some cases, infections can result from an imbalance of natural microbes in the body. For example, a disruption in the natural balance of bacteria in the gut can lead to gastrointestinal infections.

Overall, the causes of infections vary depending on the specific microorganism involved and the mode of transmission. Understanding these causes is essential in preventing and treating infections and maintaining overall health and well-being.

Common Factors Leading to Infections

Infections are frequently caused by the transmission of contagious agents, such as viruses, microbes, and bacteria. These pathogens can lead to illness when they enter the body and multiply, causing an outbreak.

Contagious diseases can be spread through various means, including direct contact with an infected person, inhalation of respiratory droplets, or contact with contaminated surfaces. This allows the germs to enter the body through the eyes, nose, or mouth.

Pathogens can also be transmitted through bites from insects or animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or exposure to bodily fluids. It is crucial to maintain proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing, to prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses.

Furthermore, certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of infections. For instance, a weakened immune system due to factors like stress, poor nutrition, or underlying medical conditions can make an individual more susceptible to infections.

Additionally, overcrowded living conditions or a lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases.

Understanding these common factors leading to infections can help individuals take necessary precautions to protect themselves and others from the transmission of harmful pathogens.

Microorganisms and Infection Transmission

Infections are caused by the presence of various microorganisms, including bacteria, microbes, viruses, and other pathogens. These tiny organisms can cause diseases and illnesses when they enter the body and multiply. They can be transmitted through different modes including direct contact, air, water, or contaminated surfaces.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can cause a wide range of infections, from minor ones such as ear infections to more severe illnesses like pneumonia. They can spread through contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or even through insect bites.

Viruses are another type of microorganism that can cause infections. They are much smaller than bacteria and are unable to survive on their own. Instead, they need to infect the cells of their host to reproduce and spread. Viral infections, such as the common cold or influenza, can easily be transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Contagion and Prevention

Contagion is the process by which an infectious disease is spread from one person to another. It occurs when a person comes into contact with the pathogens that cause the illness. This can happen through direct physical contact with an infected individual, contact with objects or surfaces that have been contaminated by the germs, or inhalation of airborne particles.

To prevent the transmission of infections, it is important to practice good hygiene habits such as regular handwashing and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. This helps to reduce the spread of germs and minimize the risk of contagion. Additionally, vaccinations can be effective in preventing certain infections by providing immunity against specific viruses or bacteria.

Environmental Factors and Infections

Environmental factors play a crucial role in the outbreak and spread of infections. Various microbes, including viruses, germs, and bacteria, thrive in specific environmental conditions and can cause disease and illness in humans.

Pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, can be transmitted through the air, water, and soil. Poor sanitation, contaminated food and water sources, and overcrowded living conditions increase the risk of infections. For example, areas with inadequate access to clean drinking water may be more prone to waterborne diseases.

Airborne infections can spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. These respiratory droplets can remain in the air or settle on surfaces, allowing others to come into contact with the pathogens and become infected. Crowded and poorly ventilated spaces increase the likelihood of airborne transmission.

Insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, can also be vectors for infections. They can carry and transmit pathogens from person to person, causing diseases like malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. Environmental factors, such as the presence of stagnant water or dense vegetation, can create ideal conditions for these vectors to thrive.

Environmental factors can also influence the survival and persistence of pathogens outside the human body. For example, certain bacteria can survive longer in moist environments, while others may thrive in acidic conditions. Understanding these environmental factors is essential in preventing and controlling infection outbreaks.

  • Controlling the spread of infections requires interventions that target specific environmental factors. Improving sanitation practices, providing clean water sources, and promoting proper waste management can reduce the risk of infection transmission.
  • Vector control measures, such as insecticide-treated bed nets and insect repellents, can help prevent insect-borne infections.
  • Proper ventilation and maintaining optimal humidity levels in indoor spaces can reduce the spread of airborne infections.
  • Public health campaigns and education efforts can also raise awareness about the importance of environmental factors in preventing infections and promote behavior changes that can minimize the risk of disease transmission.

Overall, environmental factors play a significant role in the occurrence, spread, and prevention of infections. By understanding and addressing these factors, we can better protect ourselves and reduce the burden of infectious diseases.

Symptoms of Infections

Infections can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the type of pathogen involved. Both bacteria and viruses are common pathogens that can lead to infections.

When the body is infected by bacteria or viruses, it may exhibit symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, fatigue, and body aches. Some infections can also cause specific symptoms such as a sore throat, runny nose, or gastrointestinal issues.

The specific symptoms experienced during an infection can vary depending on the type of pathogen and the part of the body that is affected. For example, respiratory infections may cause symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest congestion, and coughing, while gastrointestinal infections may lead to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Infections can range from mild to severe, with some leading to serious illnesses and complications. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist for an extended period of time.

Preventing the spread of infections is crucial, especially during outbreaks. Good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, covering coughs and sneezes, and avoiding close contact with those who are sick can help reduce the transmission of germs and microbes that cause infections.

If you suspect that you have an infection, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. They can determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend the necessary steps to manage and treat the infection.

In conclusion, infections can result in a range of symptoms depending on the type of pathogen involved. Recognizing and addressing symptoms promptly can help in preventing the spread of infections and promoting overall health and well-being.

Common Symptoms of Infections

An illness caused by bacteria, disease outbreak, or germs can result in various symptoms.

Microbes, like bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are commonly responsible for causing infections.

Some common symptoms of infections include:

  • Fever: A higher body temperature than normal can indicate an infection.
  • Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired or lacking energy can be a sign of an infection.
  • Cough: Persistent coughing can be a symptom of respiratory infections.
  • Sore throat: Infections in the throat can cause pain and discomfort.
  • Nasal congestion: Blockage or stuffiness in the nose can accompany various infections.
  • Headache: Some infections can cause headaches or migraines.
  • Vomiting: Certain infections can lead to nausea and vomiting.
  • Diarrhea: Infections affecting the gastrointestinal system can cause diarrhea.
  • Rash: Skin infections may result in a rash or redness.
  • Swollen lymph nodes: Infections can cause enlargement of the lymph nodes, which may be tender to touch.

It is important to note that symptoms can vary depending on the specific infection and individual factors. Seeking medical attention is recommended if any severe or persistent symptoms occur.

Specific Symptoms Based on the Type of Infection

When it comes to infections, symptoms can vary depending on the type of infection and the causative agent. Different microbes can cause different symptoms, leading to various diseases or illnesses. Understanding the specific symptoms based on the type of infection is crucial for diagnosis and treatment.

1. Viral Infections

Viruses are tiny germs that can cause a wide range of illnesses in humans. Common symptoms of viral infections include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, fatigue, body aches, and sometimes a rash. Specific viruses can also cause more severe symptoms like difficulty breathing, chest pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological problems.

2. Bacterial Infections

Bacteria are another type of microbe that can cause infections. Symptoms of bacterial infections can include fever, chills, body aches, cough, difficulty breathing, diarrhea or bloody stools, abdominal pain, vomiting, and skin rashes. Some bacterial infections can also lead to specific symptoms depending on the affected organ or system, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, or meningitis.

3. Fungal Infections

Fungi are a type of pathogen that can cause infections, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of fungal infections depend on the affected area, but common symptoms can include skin rashes, itching, redness, nail changes, hair loss, and difficulty swallowing. In some cases, fungal infections can also cause more severe symptoms like fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

4. Parasitic Infections

Parasites can invade the body and cause infections, leading to a variety of symptoms. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, fatigue, and skin changes. Some parasites can also cause specific symptoms depending on the affected organ or system, such as liver or intestinal complications.

It’s important to remember that these symptoms can vary from person to person, and some infections may present with mild symptoms or even be asymptomatic. If you suspect an infection, it’s crucial to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Complications Associated with Untreated Infections

When infections caused by viruses, pathogens, or bacteria go untreated, serious complications can arise. Untreated infections can lead to outbreaks of contagious diseases, putting individuals at risk for further illness and complications.

One of the main complications of untreated infections is the spread of germs and contagions. Without proper treatment, infections can easily spread from person to person, leading to a higher risk of transmission and a larger number of affected individuals.

Untreated infections can also increase the severity and duration of illness. Without appropriate medical intervention, the body may struggle to fight off the infection, leading to prolonged symptoms and a more severe disease course.

In some cases, untreated infections can lead to the development of more serious health conditions. For example, an untreated bacterial infection can progress to a systemic infection, causing sepsis or other life-threatening complications.

Chronic infections that are left untreated can also have long-term consequences. These infections can lead to damage to organs and tissues, resulting in chronic pain, decreased functioning, or permanent disability.

In addition to physical complications, untreated infections can also have negative psychological effects. Chronic illness and ongoing symptoms can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and depression.

It is important to seek prompt medical treatment for infections to prevent these potential complications. With early intervention and appropriate treatment, many infections can be effectively managed and their complications minimized.

Diagnosis of Infections

Diagnosing infections is crucial for determining the appropriate treatment and preventing further spread of the disease. Healthcare professionals use various methods to identify the presence of pathogens causing the illness.

Physical Examination

A physical examination is often the first step in diagnosing infections. The doctor will assess the patient’s symptoms and look for signs of infection, such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, or redness.

Medical History

Obtaining a detailed medical history is essential in diagnosing infections. The doctor will ask questions about the patient’s recent activities, travel history, and exposure to sick individuals. This information helps identify possible sources of infection.

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory tests play a crucial role in diagnosing infections. Blood tests can detect the presence of specific antibodies or antigens, indicating an active infection. Cultures can be performed on samples taken from body fluids, such as urine or sputum, to identify the specific microbe causing the infection.

In some cases, molecular diagnostic techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), may be used to detect the genetic material of the pathogen directly.

Imaging Studies

Imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans, may be used to visualize the infected area in certain types of infections. For example, chest X-rays can help diagnose pneumonia by revealing abnormalities in the lungs.

Overall, accurate diagnosis of infections is crucial for appropriate treatment and containment of outbreaks. Timely identification of the specific virus, bacteria, or other pathogens causing the infection allows healthcare professionals to administer targeted treatment and implement necessary precautions to prevent the further spread of the contagion.

Medical Tests and Procedures for Infection Diagnosis

When a person shows symptoms of an infection, it is important to determine the type of pathogen causing the illness in order to provide appropriate treatment. Medical professionals use various tests and procedures to diagnose infections and identify the specific contagion responsible for the disease.

Laboratory Tests

One common method of infection diagnosis involves laboratory tests. These tests often include analyzing bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or saliva to detect the presence of microbes, viruses, or other pathogens. Laboratory technicians can perform cultures to grow and identify the specific germs causing the infection. They can also conduct tests to measure antibodies or antigens related to a certain illness, providing valuable information about the patient’s immune response.

Imaging Procedures

In some cases, imaging procedures may be necessary to diagnose infections. Technologies such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasounds can provide detailed images of the affected areas in the body. These imaging techniques can help medical professionals locate and evaluate signs of an infection, such as inflammation, abscesses, or abnormal growths. By visualizing the infected area, doctors can better understand the nature and extent of the infection.

Once the infection is correctly diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be determined. Early detection and identification of the specific pathogen responsible for the illness are crucial in preventing the further spread of the infection and providing timely treatment to the affected individual.

Consulting a Healthcare Professional

If you suspect that you have an infection or are experiencing symptoms such as fever, coughing, or body aches, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional. Microbes, including bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, can cause diseases and illnesses. A healthcare professional will be able to properly diagnose the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment.

During an outbreak or when there is a concern about infectious diseases, consulting a healthcare professional becomes even more critical. They have the knowledge and experience to identify the specific microbe causing the outbreak and can provide guidance on preventing its spread.

A healthcare professional may order specific tests to determine the presence of bacteria, germs, or viruses in your body. These tests can include blood tests, urine tests, or swabs taken from the affected area. Depending on the results, they will recommend appropriate treatment options, whether it’s prescribing antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medication for viral infections.

It is important to follow the advice and instructions given by healthcare professionals to ensure a prompt recovery and prevent the spread of microbes. They can provide guidance on proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, to reduce the risk of transmitting infections to others.

Remember, a healthcare professional is your partner in managing and treating infections. They have the expertise to navigate through different types of infections and customize a suitable treatment plan for your specific condition. If you suspect an infection or are experiencing symptoms, do not hesitate to reach out to a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.

Prevention of Infections

Infections caused by microbes can result in outbreaks of diseases and illnesses that spread rapidly through communities. It is important to take preventive measures to minimize the risk of contracting and spreading these infections.

One of the key ways to prevent infections is to practice good hygiene. Regularly washing your hands with soap and water, especially before eating or after using the restroom, helps to remove bacteria and germs that may be present on your hands. If soap and water are not available, using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer can also be effective.

Another important preventive measure is to avoid close contact with individuals who are sick or displaying symptoms of an infection. Viruses and bacteria can be easily transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Keeping a safe distance from individuals who are coughing or sneezing can reduce the risk of contagion.

Covering your mouth and nose with a tissue or your elbow when coughing or sneezing is also crucial in preventing the spread of infections. This helps to stop the transmission of respiratory droplets that may contain viruses or bacteria. Dispose of used tissues properly and wash your hands immediately afterward.

In addition, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also contribute to the prevention of infections. Eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep can all help to boost your immune system, making you less susceptible to infections.

Lastly, vaccines play a crucial role in preventing certain infections. Vaccinations can provide immunity against specific viruses or bacteria, greatly reducing the chances of getting infected. Keeping up to date with recommended vaccinations can help protect both individuals and the wider community from contagious diseases.

By implementing these preventive measures, you can help reduce the spread of infections and protect yourself and others from the harmful effects of microbes.

Treatment of Infections

When it comes to the treatment of infections, there are several factors to consider. The underlying cause of the infection, whether it be a contagion caused by a bacteria or virus, must be identified in order to determine the most effective course of action.

Bacterial infections are often treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. In the case of a viral outbreak, treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system as it fights off the infection.

Regardless of whether the infection is bacterial or viral, proper hygiene practices can significantly reduce the risk of illness. Washing hands regularly with soap and water, using hand sanitizer when necessary, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick are all effective strategies for preventing the spread of germs and pathogens.

In some cases, more aggressive medical interventions may be necessary for the treatment of infections. This can include antiviral medications, intravenous fluids for dehydration, or even hospitalization in severe cases. It is important to discuss any concerns or symptoms with a healthcare professional to ensure the appropriate treatment plan is followed.

In conclusion, the treatment of infections depends on the underlying cause and severity of the illness. Whether caused by bacteria or viruses, proper hygiene practices and medical interventions play a crucial role in preventing the spread and mitigating the effects of infections.

Antibiotics and Antiviral Medications

When it comes to treating infections caused by pathogens such as germs, microbes, viruses, and bacteria, antibiotics and antiviral medications play a crucial role. These medications are specifically designed to target and eliminate the underlying cause of the illness, helping to relieve symptoms and prevent the spread of contagion.


Antibiotics are medications used to treat bacterial infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby stopping the infection from spreading further. It is important to note that antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu.

When a bacterial infection is suspected or diagnosed, a healthcare professional may prescribe a specific antibiotic based on the type of bacteria causing the illness. It is crucial to take antibiotics as prescribed and complete the full course of treatment to ensure the complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Antiviral Medications

Unlike antibiotics, antiviral medications are used to specifically target and treat viral infections. These medications work by either inhibiting the replication of the virus or strengthening the immune system’s response against the virus.

Antiviral medications are commonly used to treat viral infections, including influenza (the flu), herpes, and HIV. They can help reduce symptoms, shorten the duration of illness, and prevent complications. However, it is essential to note that not all viral infections can be treated with antiviral medications.

In some cases, antiviral medications can also be used as a preventive measure during outbreaks of certain viral infections. For example, during a flu outbreak, healthcare providers may prescribe antiviral medications to individuals at high risk of complications or to prevent the spread of the virus.

Home Remedies for Infections

When it comes to dealing with illness and contagion, many people turn to home remedies as a first line of defense. These natural remedies can help alleviate symptoms and support the body’s immune system in fighting off infections.

1. Boosting your immune system

A strong immune system is crucial in defending against pathogens, germs, and disease. To bolster your immune system, try incorporating immune-boosting foods into your diet, such as garlic, ginger, citrus fruits, and leafy greens. Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and managing stress are also essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.

2. Using natural antimicrobials

Natural antimicrobial agents can help combat microbes and bacteria that cause infections. Some effective options include honey, tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar, and colloidal silver. These natural remedies can be used topically or consumed internally, depending on the type of infection.

It’s important to note that while home remedies can provide relief and support the body’s healing process, they should not replace proper medical treatment. It’s always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Alternative Therapies for Infections

While traditional methods of treating infections, such as antibiotics and antiviral medications, are effective in many cases, alternative therapies can also offer beneficial options. These therapies can help boost the immune system and combat contagion in a more natural way.

One alternative therapy for infections is herbal medicine. There are numerous herbs and plant extracts known for their antimicrobial properties. These natural remedies can help fight off outbreaks caused by harmful microbes and bacteria. For example, garlic has been used for centuries as a natural antibiotic due to its ability to kill disease-causing pathogens.

Another alternative therapy is acupuncture. By inserting thin needles into specific points in the body, acupuncture can help restore balance and promote healing. It is believed to stimulate the immune system, helping the body fight off illness and viruses. Acupuncture has been used to alleviate symptoms and reduce the duration of various infections.

Some people also turn to homeopathy for infection treatment. Homeopathic remedies use highly diluted substances to stimulate the body’s natural healing response. These remedies are tailored to each individual and can target specific symptoms and types of infections. Homeopathy is often used alongside conventional treatments to enhance their effectiveness.

Additionally, essential oils have gained popularity as an alternative therapy for infections. Many essential oils have antimicrobial properties and can help kill bacteria and viruses. Tea tree oil, for example, is known for its powerful antibacterial and antiviral effects. When used properly and under professional guidance, essential oils can be a natural and effective addition to infection treatment.

It’s important to note that while alternative therapies can provide valuable support in treating infections, they should not replace medical advice or prescribed treatments. Consulting with a healthcare professional is crucial to ensure proper diagnosis and effective treatment of infections.


What are some common causes of infections?

Common causes of infections include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Bacterial infections can be caused by harmful bacteria entering the body through cuts or wounds, while viral infections are caused by viruses spreading from person to person. Fungal infections are often caused by exposure to fungi in the environment, such as mold or yeast. Parasitic infections can occur when parasites enter the body through contaminated food or water.

What are the symptoms of an infection?

Symptoms of an infection can vary depending on the type of infection and the part of the body affected. Some common symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Other symptoms may include redness, swelling, or pain at the site of an infection. In some cases, infections may cause more specific symptoms, such as a rash or diarrhea.

How are infections treated?

The treatment of infections depends on the type and severity of the infection. Bacterial infections are often treated with antibiotics, which can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Viral infections do not respond to antibiotics and may require antiviral medications. Fungal infections can be treated with antifungal drugs, while parasitic infections may require specific medications to target the particular parasite. In some cases, supportive care such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers may also be recommended.

Are there any natural remedies for infections?

While natural remedies may help relieve symptoms and support the body’s immune system, they are not a substitute for medical treatment. Some natural remedies that may be beneficial include drinking plenty of fluids, getting enough rest, eating a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and using herbal remedies such as echinacea or ginger. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before trying any natural remedies, especially if you have a serious or persistent infection.

How can infections be prevented?

Preventing infections involves practicing good hygiene and taking precautions to avoid exposure to pathogens. This includes washing hands frequently with soap and water, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and maintaining a clean and sanitary environment. Vaccinations are also an important measure for preventing many types of infections. Additionally, practicing safe sex, handling food properly, and avoiding contact with contaminated water or animals can help reduce the risk of infection.

What are some common causes of infections?

Some common causes of infections include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These microorganisms can enter the body through various means such as cuts, bites, or through the air and cause infections.

What are some common symptoms of infections?

Common symptoms of infections can vary depending on the type and location of the infection, but some common symptoms include fever, fatigue, coughing, sneezing, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and inflammation or redness at the site of infection.