Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted vaginal infection caused by a parasitic protozoan called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide, affecting both men and women.
Trichomoniasis is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her baby during childbirth.
Symptoms of trichomoniasis may vary but can include vaginal itching, a strong-smelling vaginal discharge, pain during urination or sexual intercourse, and irritation of the genital area. However, some people with trichomoniasis may not experience any symptoms at all, making it important to get tested regularly if you are sexually active.
If left untreated, trichomoniasis can lead to complications such as increased risk of contracting other sexually transmitted infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Therefore, early detection and treatment is crucial.
Causes of Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is generally transmitted through sexual intercourse, including vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
The infection occurs when a person comes into contact with the vaginal discharge or semen of an infected individual. The protozoan parasite can survive outside the body for a short period of time, allowing for transmission through shared sex toys or damp surfaces.
While trichomoniasis is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, it can also be spread through nonsexual means. This includes things like sharing contaminated towels or bathing in contaminated water. However, these modes of transmission are rare and less common than sexual transmission.
It is important to note that many infected individuals may not show any symptoms of trichomoniasis, making it easy for the infection to go unnoticed and continue to spread. Regular testing and practicing safe sex are important for the prevention and control of trichomoniasis.
Symptoms of Trichomoniasis
The symptoms of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted parasitic vaginal infection, can vary in severity and may include:
|Abnormal vaginal discharge that is often frothy, yellow-green in color, and may have an unpleasant odor.
|Genital Itching and Irritation
|Itching, redness, and irritation in the genital area.
|Burning or pain during urination.
|Discomfort During Sexual Intercourse
|Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse.
|Lower Abdominal Pain
|Pain or cramping in the lower abdomen.
It is important to note that some individuals infected with trichomoniasis may not experience any symptoms at all. However, even without symptoms, trichomoniasis can still be transmitted to sexual partners. It is recommended to regularly get tested for sexually transmitted infections and seek treatment if infected.
Treatment for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide and can lead to a variety of symptoms in both men and women. Fortunately, trichomoniasis is easily treatable with medication.
Symptoms of Trichomoniasis
Some common symptoms of trichomoniasis include itching, burning, and redness in the genital area, as well as abnormal vaginal discharge in women. Men may experience discomfort during urination or ejaculation. However, in some cases, trichomoniasis may not cause any symptoms at all.
If you suspect you have trichomoniasis or have been diagnosed with the infection, it is important to seek treatment promptly. Trichomoniasis can be treated with prescription medications, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which work to kill the protozoan causing the infection.
It is recommended for both sexual partners to receive treatment, even if symptoms are not present in one or both individuals. This is to prevent reinfection and to ensure that the infection is completely eradicated.
In addition to medication, it is also important to practice safe sex and to avoid sexual activity until the infection has been fully treated. This can help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis to others.
If you have been diagnosed with trichomoniasis, it is important to complete the full course of treatment prescribed by your healthcare provider, even if symptoms improve or disappear. This will help ensure that the infection is fully cleared from your body.
Regular follow-up testing may also be recommended after treatment to ensure that the infection has been successfully treated. If the infection persists or symptoms return after completing treatment, it is important to contact your healthcare provider for further evaluation and treatment.
In conclusion, trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection that can be easily treated with medication. If you experience any symptoms or have been diagnosed with trichomoniasis, it is important to seek treatment promptly to prevent the spread of the infection and to ensure a full recovery.
Effective Medications for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. It is characterized by symptoms such as vaginal itching, discharge, and pain during urination or sexual intercourse.
Fortunately, trichomoniasis can be effectively treated with medications. The most commonly prescribed medication for trichomoniasis is metronidazole (Flagyl). Metronidazole is an antibiotic that works by killing the protozoan parasite, thus curing the infection.
Metronidazole can be taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. The usual dose is a single 2-gram dose or a 7-day course of 500 mg twice a day. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared.
In addition to metronidazole, there is another medication called tinidazole (Tindamax) that can be used to treat trichomoniasis. Tinidazole works in a similar way to metronidazole and is also taken orally. The usual dose is a single 2-gram dose. Like metronidazole, it is important to complete the full course of treatment.
It is important to note that both metronidazole and tinidazole should not be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, as they may have adverse effects on the fetus or infant. In such cases, alternative medications may be prescribed.
After completing the prescribed medication, it is important to follow up with a healthcare provider to ensure that the infection has been successfully treated. Sexual partners should also be notified and treated to prevent re-infection.
In conclusion, effective medications such as metronidazole and tinidazole are available for the treatment of trichomoniasis. It is important to promptly seek treatment if you suspect you have this sexually transmitted disease in order to prevent complications and reduce the risk of spreading the infection.
Alternative Therapies for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and can cause uncomfortable symptoms in both men and women.
While conventional treatment for trichomoniasis typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications, some individuals may seek out alternative therapies to help alleviate symptoms or complement medical treatment.
1. Herbal Remedies
Herbal remedies have been used for centuries for various health conditions, and some herbs may have antimicrobial properties that could potentially help in the treatment of trichomoniasis. Examples of herbs that have been suggested as potential alternative therapies for trichomoniasis include garlic, goldenseal, and tea tree oil. However, more research is needed to determine their effectiveness and safety.
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that help maintain a healthy balance of microorganisms in the body. Some studies have suggested that certain probiotic strains, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, may help inhibit the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and reduce the symptoms of trichomoniasis. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal strains and dosages for trichomoniasis treatment.
It is important to note that while alternative therapies may have potential benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment. If you suspect you have trichomoniasis or have been diagnosed with the infection, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Preventive Measures for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted vaginal infection caused by a protozoan parasite. Though it can be easily treated with medication, it’s always better to prevent the disease from occurring in the first place.
Here are some preventive measures that can help reduce the risk of trichomoniasis:
1. Safe Sex Practices: Practicing safe sex, such as using condoms consistently and correctly, can greatly reduce the risk of contracting trichomoniasis. It’s important to use condoms from the beginning to the end of sexual activity.
2. Limiting Sexual Partners: Having multiple sexual partners increases the chances of getting infected with trichomoniasis. By limiting sexual partners or having a mutually monogamous relationship, the risk of transmission is significantly reduced.
3. Regular Screening: Regular screening for sexually transmitted infections, including trichomoniasis, can help detect the infection at an early stage. Early diagnosis can prevent complications and help start treatment promptly.
4. Communication: Open and honest communication with sexual partners about previous and current sexually transmitted infections is crucial. This can help in making informed decisions about safe sex practices and seeking timely medical attention if needed.
5. Personal Hygiene: Maintaining good personal hygiene can also help prevent trichomoniasis. Keeping the genital area clean and dry, avoiding douching, and changing underwear regularly are a few hygiene practices that can be beneficial.
6. Avoiding Sharing Personal Items: Sharing personal items, such as towels or undergarments, can potentially transmit the infection. Avoid sharing these items to minimize the risk.
7. Education and Awareness: Educating oneself and others about trichomoniasis, its symptoms, and ways of prevention is vital. Promoting awareness can help in reducing the overall burden of the disease and encourage individuals to take preventive measures.
By implementing these preventive measures, the risk of contracting trichomoniasis can be significantly reduced. It’s important to remember that prevention is always better than treatment.
Complications Associated with Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis, a protozoan infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is typically characterized by symptoms such as itching, burning, and abnormal discharge in the genital area.
If left untreated, trichomoniasis can lead to various complications. In women, the infection can cause inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), which can increase the risk of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as HIV. Trichomoniasis can also cause inflammation of the vulva (vulvitis) and inflammation of the urethra (urethritis).
In pregnant women, trichomoniasis has been associated with complications such as premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and low birth weight of the baby. The infection can also be transmitted to the newborn during vaginal delivery, leading to a higher risk of respiratory and genital infections in the infant.
Furthermore, trichomoniasis increases the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious infection that can lead to infertility and chronic pelvic pain. The inflammation caused by the infection can result in scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the sperm from reaching the egg and increasing the chances of infertility.
It’s important to seek prompt treatment for trichomoniasis to prevent the development of these complications. Treatment typically involves the use of oral medications or antibiotics to eliminate the parasitic infection. Additionally, it is advised to abstain from sexual activity or use condoms consistently to prevent reinfection or transmission of the disease to a partner.
Trichomoniasis, a parasitic disease transmitted through sexual contact, can lead to complications such as cervicitis, vulvitis, urethritis, preterm birth, low birth weight, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Prompt treatment and preventive measures such as abstinence or consistent condom use are important in managing trichomoniasis and reducing the risk of complications.
Trichomoniasis is a parasitic sexually transmitted infection caused by a protozoan called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is a common sexually transmitted disease that can affect both men and women.
Diagnosing trichomoniasis usually involves a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory tests, and microscopic examination. Since symptoms may vary or even be absent in some cases, it is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have contracted the disease.
1. Clinical Assessment:
During a clinical assessment, a healthcare provider will review your medical history and ask about any symptoms you may be experiencing. Common symptoms of trichomoniasis in women include vaginal itching, burning, and discharge. Men may experience urethral discomfort or discharge from the penis. However, please note that these symptoms are not specific to trichomoniasis and can be caused by other conditions as well.
2. Laboratory Tests:
Laboratory tests are crucial in diagnosing trichomoniasis. Your healthcare provider may collect a sample of vaginal fluid or urine for further analysis. The most commonly used laboratory test is a microscopic examination, where the sample is examined under a microscope to detect the presence of the Trichomonas parasite.
In some cases, a culture test may be conducted. This involves placing the sample in a culture medium and waiting for the protozoan to grow. Culture tests can take longer to provide results than microscopic examinations.
Note: It is important to refrain from urinating, using vaginal creams or douching for at least one hour before providing a sample, as it could affect the accuracy of the test results.
After the diagnosis of trichomoniasis is confirmed, treatment can be prescribed by your healthcare provider. It usually involves the use of oral antibiotics to eliminate the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment and avoid sexual activity until both you and your partner have been treated to prevent re-infection.
Remember, early detection and prompt treatment of trichomoniasis can help prevent complications and further transmission of the disease.
Difference Between Trichomoniasis and Other STDs
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is one of the most common STDs worldwide. While some symptoms may be similar to other STDs, there are key differences that set trichomoniasis apart from other sexually transmitted infections.
Trichomoniasis is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, either vaginal or anal. It can also be transmitted through contact with damp or moist objects that have come into contact with the infection. Other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but they may have different modes of transmission as well.
Trichomoniasis often presents with symptoms such as itching, burning, and redness in the genital area. Women may experience an abnormal vaginal discharge that is frothy, yellow-green, or foul-smelling. Men may have discharge from the penis or feel discomfort during urination. Other STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also cause similar symptoms, but there may be variations in the type or severity of symptoms.
To diagnose trichomoniasis, healthcare providers usually perform a laboratory test, such as a microscopic examination of a sample of the vaginal fluid or urine, or a DNA-based test. This allows for accurate detection of the parasite. Other STDs may require different diagnostic tests, such as swabbing of the affected area or blood tests, depending on the specific infection.
Trichomoniasis can be easily treated with prescription medications, usually antibiotics. Both sexual partners should be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection. Other STDs may require different treatment protocols, such as a combination of antibiotics or antiviral medications. Regular follow-up appointments may be necessary to ensure complete recovery.
In conclusion, while trichomoniasis may share some similarities with other sexually transmitted infections in terms of symptoms and mode of transmission, its distinct characteristics, such as the protozoan infection and specific diagnostic tests, set it apart. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in managing trichomoniasis and preventing its spread.
Trichomoniasis vs. Gonorrhea: Key Differences
Trichomoniasis and gonorrhea are both sexually transmitted diseases caused by different types of organisms. Trichomoniasis is caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis, while gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
One of the key differences between trichomoniasis and gonorrhea is the type of organism that causes the infection. Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasitic protozoan, which means it is a single-celled organism that can live and multiply in the human body. On the other hand, gonorrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, which means it is caused by a type of bacteria that can invade and infect certain tissues in the body.
Another difference between trichomoniasis and gonorrhea is the symptoms that they can cause. Trichomoniasis often causes symptoms such as vaginal itching, discharge, and discomfort during urination. However, in many cases, trichomoniasis may not cause any symptoms at all. On the other hand, gonorrhea can cause symptoms such as a burning sensation during urination, abnormal discharge from the genitals, and pelvic pain. It is important to note that both trichomoniasis and gonorrhea can be asymptomatic, meaning they may not cause any symptoms despite the presence of the infection.
The treatment for trichomoniasis and gonorrhea is also different. Trichomoniasis can be treated with a course of antibiotics, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can help eliminate the parasite from the body. Gonorrhea, on the other hand, is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone and azithromycin, to target and kill the bacteria.
In conclusion, while both trichomoniasis and gonorrhea are sexually transmitted infections, they are caused by different organisms and can have different symptoms and treatments. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have either infection, as early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and further transmission of the disease.
Trichomoniasis vs. Chlamydia: Commonalities and Distinctions
Trichomoniasis and Chlamydia are both sexually transmitted infections caused by different types of microorganisms. Trichomoniasis is caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis, while Chlamydia is caused by bacteria from the genus Chlamydia.
Both trichomoniasis and chlamydia can be transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They can cause similar symptoms, such as abnormal vaginal discharge, itching, and discomfort during urination. If left untreated, both infections can lead to more serious health problems, such as pelvic inflammatory disease in women.
One key difference between trichomoniasis and chlamydia is the type of microorganism that causes the infection. Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasitic protozoan, while chlamydia is caused by bacteria. Another difference lies in the location of the infection. Trichomoniasis primarily affects the lower genital tract, including the vaginal and urethral tissues, while chlamydia can infect both the genital and extragenital areas, including the eyes and throat.
In terms of symptoms, trichomoniasis often causes more noticeable discomfort, including itching, odor, and pain during intercourse, while chlamydia may present with milder or even no symptoms at all. Additionally, trichomoniasis is more commonly diagnosed in women, while chlamydia affects both men and women equally.
When it comes to treatment, trichomoniasis can be effectively treated with antibiotics, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, while chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline. It is important for both partners to receive treatment simultaneously to prevent re-infection.
In conclusion, while trichomoniasis and chlamydia are both sexually transmitted infections with some similarities in symptoms and potential consequences, they are caused by different microorganisms and may require different treatments.
Risk Factors for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a vaginal infection caused by a protozoan parasite. It is a sexually transmitted disease and can be easily spread through sexual contact. There are several risk factors that can increase the chances of developing trichomoniasis:
1. Unprotected sex: Engaging in sexual activities without using condoms or dental dams can increase the risk of contracting trichomoniasis. The parasite can be passed from one person to another during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
2. Multiple sexual partners: Having multiple sexual partners can increase the risk of trichomoniasis. The more sexual partners a person has, the greater the likelihood of coming into contact with someone who is infected.
3. Previous history of trichomoniasis: If a person has had trichomoniasis in the past, they are more likely to get reinfected. The parasite can persist in the body even after treatment, so it is important to take precautions to prevent reinfection.
4. Weakened immune system: Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, may be at a higher risk of developing trichomoniasis. A weakened immune system makes it harder for the body to fight off the infection.
5. Age: Trichomoniasis is more common in younger individuals. This may be due to increased sexual activity and a higher likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors.
It is important to note that trichomoniasis can also occur in individuals who do not have any of these risk factors. Practicing safe sex and getting regular check-ups can help reduce the risk of trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections.
Trichomoniasis and Pregnancy
Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It can affect both men and women, but it is especially important for pregnant women to be aware of this infection due to potential complications.
Trichomoniasis during pregnancy can lead to a higher risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. It can also increase the chances of the baby being born with trichomoniasis or other infections. Therefore, it is crucial for pregnant women to receive timely and appropriate treatment for trichomoniasis.
If a pregnant woman is diagnosed with trichomoniasis, her partner should also be treated to prevent reinfection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment, as directed by a healthcare provider, to ensure the infection is fully cleared.
In addition to medical treatment, pregnant women with trichomoniasis should also take extra precautions to protect themselves and their baby from other sexually transmitted infections. This includes practicing safe sex, using condoms consistently and correctly, and getting regular prenatal check-ups.
It is important for pregnant women to be aware of the symptoms of trichomoniasis, which may include vaginal itching, unusual discharge, and pain during urination or sexual intercourse. If any of these symptoms occur, it is important to seek medical attention for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Overall, trichomoniasis is a treatable infection, and with proper medical care, pregnant women can reduce the risks associated with this disease. It is important to communicate openly with healthcare providers about any concerns or questions regarding trichomoniasis and its impact on pregnancy.
Effects of Trichomoniasis on Pregnancy
Trichomoniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, can have significant effects on pregnancy. It is a sexually transmitted disease that can be transmitted through vaginal intercourse.
During pregnancy, trichomoniasis can pose several risks and complications. Pregnant women infected with trichomoniasis may experience symptoms such as itching, inflammation, and a frothy vaginal discharge. If left untreated, the infection can increase the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and other complications.
Diagnosis and treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy is crucial to ensure the health of the mother and the fetus. A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, request a sample of vaginal discharge for laboratory testing, and prescribe appropriate treatment. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic medications that are safe for pregnant women.
It is important for pregnant women to have regular prenatal check-ups and inform their healthcare providers about any symptoms or concerns. Early detection and treatment of trichomoniasis is essential to prevent complications and protect the health of both the mother and the baby.
Prevention of Trichomoniasis Transmission
To reduce the risk of trichomoniasis transmission during pregnancy, it is important to practice safe sexual behaviors. This includes using condoms correctly and consistently, avoiding sexual activity with partners who have symptoms of trichomoniasis or other sexually transmitted infections, and getting regular screenings for sexually transmitted infections.
Trichomoniasis can have significant effects on pregnancy if left untreated. It is important for pregnant women to be aware of the symptoms of trichomoniasis and seek appropriate medical care. By practicing safe sexual behaviors and undergoing regular screenings, the risk of trichomoniasis transmission can be reduced, ensuring a healthier pregnancy and childbirth.
|Low birth weight
|Safe sexual behaviors
|Increased risk of complications
Testing and Treating Trichomoniasis during Pregnancy
Trichomoniasis is a protozoan infection that is sexually transmitted. It can cause various symptoms and complications, especially during pregnancy. If left untreated, trichomoniasis can lead to preterm birth, low birth weight, and even the transmission of the infection to the newborn.
Testing for trichomoniasis during pregnancy is essential to ensure early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Healthcare providers may recommend a pelvic examination, which involves collecting samples of vaginal discharge for laboratory testing. Additionally, urine tests and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) may be used to detect the parasitic antigen or genetic material.
If a pregnant woman is diagnosed with trichomoniasis, treatment should be initiated promptly to protect both the mother and the baby. The most common treatment option is the use of an oral medication called metronidazole. This medication effectively fights the parasite and helps alleviate the symptoms of the infection.
It is important to note that while metronidazole is generally considered safe for pregnant women, it should be used with caution, especially during the first trimester. In case of severe symptoms or complications, alternative medications or treatment plans may be considered under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
In addition to medication, lifestyle modifications can also help in managing trichomoniasis during pregnancy. It is important to practice safe sex and to inform sexual partners about the infection. Avoiding sexual activity until the infection has cleared up can also help prevent reinfection or transmission to others.
If you are pregnant and experience any symptoms of trichomoniasis, such as itching, burning, or abnormal discharge, it is crucial to consult your healthcare provider for testing and appropriate treatment. Early detection and treatment can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications associated with trichomoniasis.
What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.
How do you get trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is usually spread through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be spread through sharing sex toys or by touching the genitals of an infected person and then touching your own genitals.
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?
The symptoms of trichomoniasis can vary, but they commonly include itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the genitals. Some people may also experience a yellow-green, frothy discharge with a strong odor, and discomfort or pain during urination.
How can trichomoniasis be diagnosed?
Trichomoniasis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where a healthcare provider will look for any signs of infection. They may also take a sample of vaginal fluid or use a swab to collect cells from the urethra for further testing.
What is the treatment for trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis can be treated with prescription medications, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. It’s important for both sexual partners to be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection. It’s also important to avoid sexual contact until the infection is fully cured.
What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
How is trichomoniasis transmitted?
Trichomoniasis is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person. It can also be spread through contact with moist objects or surfaces, such as shared towels or wet clothing.
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?
The symptoms of trichomoniasis may include itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, unusual discharge from the vagina or penis, and pain or discomfort during urination or sexual intercourse.
How is trichomoniasis diagnosed?
To diagnose trichomoniasis, a healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may take a sample of vaginal fluid or discharge to test for the presence of the parasite. In some cases, a urine test may also be done.
How is trichomoniasis treated?
Trichomoniasis is usually treated with prescription medication, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can kill the parasite. It is important for both sexual partners to be treated, even if symptoms are not present, to prevent re-infection.